|| Football 101
||Extra Point Conversion
The main objective for an offense, every time they take possession of the ball, is to score a touchdown. To score a touchdown, a player must carry the ball across the opposition's goal line, or catch a pass in the end zone. Once the ball crosses the plane of the goal line while it is in a player's possession, it is scored a touchdown. A touchdown is worth six points.
Once a team scores a touchdown is given the bonus of atempting to add one or two more points. This play is called anextra point conversion attempts.
Extra Point Conversion
(Also know as a PAT- P oint A fter A ttempt)
2 Point Conversion
If a team chooses to go for two extra points, they will line up at the two-yard line and make one attempt at either running or passing the ball into the end zone. If they make it, they are awarded two points. If they fail, they are awarded no extra points.
They can also elect to go for just one extra point by kicking the ball through the goal posts from the two-yard line.
A team can score by kicking a field goal.
When a team finds themselves in a fourth-down situation, they can attempt to kick a field goal if they feel they are close enough for their kicker to kick the football between the upright bars of the goal post in the opponent's endzone. A field goal is worth three points.
A team can also pick up two points by tackling an opponent possessing the ball in their own end zone.
||Who Gets to Wear What Number?
Every football player's uniform has a number on it that is unique for that particular team, making it simpler for fans, coaches, announcers, and officials to differentiate between players. On April 5, 1973, a jersey-numbering system was adopted by the NFL where each position on the football field is given a range of numbers for each player at that position to choose from, however, there are a few players around the league that are exceptions to the rule. This chart explains which number ranges are assigned to each position.
1-9 Quarterbacks and Kickers
10-19 Quarterbacks, Receivers, and Kickers
20-49 Running Backs and Defensive Backs
50-59 Centers and Linebackers
60-79 Defensive Linemen and Offensive Linemen
80-89 Receivers and Tight Ends
90-99 Defensive Linemen and Linebackers
||How a Football Field is Laid Out
Learning the exact dimensions of the field is not necessarily that important, but it is good to have a basic knowledge of the field itself.
? The playing field is 100 yards long.
? It has stripes running across the field at five-yard intervals.
? There are shorter lines, called hash marks, marking each one-yard interval.
? On each end of the playing field is an end zone (red section with diagonal lines) which extends ten yards.
? The total field is 120 yards long and 160 feet wide.
? Located on the very back line of each end zone is a goal post .
? The spot where the end zone meets the playing field is called the goal line.
? The yardage from the goal line is marked at ten-yard intervals, up to the 50-yard line, which is in the center of the field.
After reaching the 50-yard line, the yardage markers start to descend (40, 30, 20, 10) every ten yards until they reach the opposite goal line.
- Live: Ball in play.
- Dead: Ball not in play.
- Loose: Live ball not in possession.
- Ready for Play: Dead ball becomes ready for play.
- In Possession: Player or team holds or controls a live ball or ball to be free-kicked.
- Belongs to: Team has custody of a dead ball.
- Catch: Player gains possession of a ball in flight.
- Interception: Catch an opponent's pass or fumble.
- Recovery: Catching a ball that is still alive after it hits the ground.
- Simultaneous catch or recovery: Joint possession of a live ball by opposing inbounds players.
- Blocking: Bodily contact obstructs an opponent.
- Below Waist: Blocking an opponent below the waist.
- Chop Block: A high-low, low-high combination block against an opponent by two players.
- Block-in-the-back: Initial, above-the-waist contact against an opponent from behind.
- Frame of the body: Front shoulders and below.
- Blocking zone: Rectangle centered on the snapper and extending five yards laterally, and three yards longitudinally in each direction.
- Clipping: Initial contact against an opponent from behind and below the waist.
- Deliberate dead-ball advance: Attempt to advance the ball after any body part other than the hand or foot has touched the ground, or after the ball is declared dead.
- Down: Unit of the game beginning with legal snap or free kick after ball is ready for play, ending when ball becomes dead.
- Between downs: Interval of time when ball is dead.
- Fair catch: A valid catch of a scrimmage kick beyond the neutral zone by team B player
- Valid signal: A valid signal given by team B player by extending one hand above his head and waving his hand side to side.
- Invalid signal: Signal given by team B player does not meet criteria for being valid.
- Forward beyond: The direction toward opponent's end line.
- Forward progress: End of advancement of ball by ball carrier or receiver of either team, as it applies to position of ball when it became dead.
- Foul: Rule infraction resulting in a penalty.
- Violation: Rule infraction not resulting in a penalty.
- Fumble: An act of passing, kicking, or handling of ball resulting in loss of possession.
- Muff: Unsuccessful attempt to recover the ball.
- Batting: Willfully striking ball or changing its direction with hands or arms.
- Touching: Any contact with the ball.
- Blocking a scrimmage kick: Opponent of the kicking team touches the ball to try and prevent the ball from advancing beyond the neutral zone.
- Sidelines: Line running end line to end line on each side of the field separating the field of play from the out of bounds area.
- Goal lines: Lines at the end of the playing field extending between sidelines; part of the vertical plane that separates end zone from the playing field.
- End lines: Line running between side lines ten yards between each goal line separating the end zone from the out of bounds area.
- Boundary lines: Side and end lines separating in, from out of bounds.
- Restraining lines: Part of the vertical plane limiting a team's alignment for free kicks.
- Yard lines: Line on the playing field parallel to the end lines numbered consecutively from the goal to the 50-yard-line.
- Inbounds lines: Also known as "hash marks", 24-inch lines 60 feet from the sidelines.
- Nine-yard marks: 12-inch marks set 10 yards apart, and nine yards from the sidelines.
Handling the Ball
- Huddle: Two or more players grouped together after the ball is made ready for play.
- Hurdling: Player tries to jump with feet or knees over an opponent.
- Legal: Legitimate kick of the ball with knee, lower leg, or foot by a team A player before possessing the ball.
- Illegal: Non-legitimate kick of the ball.
- Punt: After kicking, player drops the ball and kicks it before it hits the ground.
- Drop kick: A kick made after dropping the ball on the ground.
- Place kick: A kick of the ball placed on a tee or the ground by a player in possession.
- Free kick: A free punt, drop kick, or place kick.
- Kickoff: A free kick starting each half or following each try or field goal.
- Scrimmage kick: Kick made by team A during a scrimmage before changing possession.
- Return kick: A kick by team in possession during a down.
- Field goal attempt: Scrimmage kick.
- Scrimmage kick formation: Formation with one player at least seven yards behind the neutral zone and no player is positioned to receive a hand-to-hand snap before attempting a kick.
- Loss of a down: Loss of the right to repeat a down.
- The neutral zone: Space between the two lines of scrimmage extended to the side lines running the length of the ball.
- Encroachment: An offensive player is either in or beyond the neutral zone after the snapper touches or simulates touching the ball before the snap.
- Offside: Defensive player position assumed after the ball is made ready for play.
- Passing: Throwing the ball.
- Forward and backward pass: The point where the ball first strikes the ground in or behind the neutral zone beyond the point of the pass is a forward pass. All other passes are backward passes.
- Crosses neutral zone: A forward pass strikes the ground or anything beyond the neutral zone inbounds.
- Catchable forward pass: An untouched legal forward pass beyond the neutral zone to a player positioned to catch the ball.
- Penalty: The result of committing a foul.
- Scrimmage: Two teams take action during a down beginning with a snap.
- Scrimmage line: The yard line and its vertical plane passing through the point of the ball nearest its own goal line extending to the sidelines.
- Shift: Simultaneous change of position by at least two offensive players after the ball is ready for play.
- Snapping the ball: Passing the ball with the snap of the hands backward from its position on the ground.
- Series: Four consecutive downs, each beginning with a snap.
- Possession series: Team continually possesses the ball in an extra period.
- Enforcement: Point of enforceable violation.
- Previous: Where the ball was last put in play.
- Succeeding: Where the ball will be put in play.
- Dead-ball: Where the ball became dead.
- Spot of the foul: Where the foul occurred.
- Out of bounds: Where the ball went out of bounds and became dead.
- Inbounds: Intersection of the nearer inbounds line and the yard line passing through the dead ball spot, or a spot where the dead ball is left between inbounds and side line by a penalty.
- Spot where run ends: Where ball is declared dead in player possession; player possession is lost on a fumble; handling of ball occurs; illegal forward or backward pass is thrown; where illegal scrimmage, or return kick is made.
- Spot where kick ends: Scrimmage that crosses the neutral zone ends at the spot ball is caught or recovered or declared dead.
- Basic spot: Benchmark for locating enforcement spot for penalties governed by the 3-and-1 principle.
- Post-scrimmage kick spot: Spot when post-scrimmage kick enforcement applies.
- Tackling: Grasping or enveloping an opponent with hands or arms.
Team and Player Designations
- Teams A and B: Team A is team designated to put ball in play; team B is the opponent.
- Offensive and Defensive Teams: Offensive is team with the ball, defensive is opponent.
- Kicker and Holder: Kicker is any player who punts, drop kicks, or places the kicks. Holder is the player who controls the ball on the ground or tee.
- Lineman and Back: Team A player on the scrimmage line when the ball is snapped; or on his scrimmage line and positioned between the end team A players also on the line of scrimmage at the snap. A lineman becomes a back before the snap when he moves to a position as a back and then stops.
- Passer: Thrower of a legal forward pass.
- Player: A team participant other than a replacement.
- Runner and ball carrier: Player in possession of a live ball.
- Snapper: Player who snaps the ball.
- Substitute: A replacement for a player between downs.
- Player vacancy: A team has fewer than 11 players.
- Disqualified Player: Player declared ineligible for remainder of game.
- Squad member: A potential player in uniform.
- Tripping: Use of the leg or foot to obstruct an opponent below the knees.
- Game clock: Device used to time the game.
- Play clock: Visual clock used for count downs.
- Forward pass: Interval between snap and completion, incompletion, or interception of the forward pass.
- Free kick: Interval from when the ball is kicked until it is in possession or declared dead.
- Scrimmage kick: Interval between the snap and when a scrimmage kick comes into possession or declared dead.
- Running: Any play during a live ball, other than a free kick, a scrimmage kick, or forward pass play.
- Field: Area of play within boundary lines.
- Field of play: Area within sidelines and goal lines.
- End zones: Areas at either ends of the field defined by the goal lines, side lines, and end lines.
- Playing surface: Surface of the playing field.
- Playing enclosure: Play area bounded by the stadium and other structures surrounding it.
- Fighting: An attempt by a player, squad member, or coach to strike another in a manner not related to football.
- Three-in-one principle: Applies when the penalty statement for a foul does not specify the enforcement spot.
- Tackle box: Rectangular area bound by the neutral zone, lines parallel to the sidelines 5 years from the snapper, and team A's end line.
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